macOS, like Linux, ships with Python already installed. But you don't want to mess with the system Python (some system tools rely on it, etc.), so we'll install our own version(s). There are two ways to install Python, (1) Homebrew and (2) Pyenv. If you plan to use multiple versions of Python (e.g. 2, 3, and anaconda) then you should use pyenv.
The following command will install Python 2.7 and any dependencies required (it can take a few minutes to build everything):
$ brew install python
When finished, you should get a summary in the terminal. Running
$ which python should output
$ pip install --upgrade setuptools $ pip install --upgrade pip
Executable scripts from Python packages you install will be put in
/usr/local/share/python, we already had this in the
Env.sh file created before. Save the file and open a new terminal to take the new
$PATH into account (everytime you open a terminal,
.bash_profile gets loaded).
Pyenv is a simple Python version manager that can manage and install different versions of Python. Works very much like rbenv for Ruby. First, we must install pyenv using homebrew:
$ brew install pyenv
To upgrade pyenv in the future, use
upgrade instead of
After installing, add
pyenv init to your shell to enable shims and autocompletion.
$ echo 'eval "$(pyenv init -)"' >> ~/Projects/config/env.sh
Restart your shell so the path changes take effect. You can now begin using pyenv.
$ exec $SHELL
To list the all available versions of Python, including Anaconda, Jython, pypy, and stackless, use:
$ pyenv install --list
Then install the desired versions:
$ pyenv install 2.7.12 $ pyenv install 3.5.2
global command to set global version(s) of Python to be used in all shells. For example, if you prefer 2.7.12 over 3.5.2:
$ pyenv global 2.7.12 3.5.2 $ pyenv rehash
The leading version takes priority.
All installed Python versions can be located in
~/.pyenv/versions. Alternatively, you can run:
$ pyenv versions system (set by /Users/your_account/.pyenv/version) * 2.7.12 * 3.5.2
This shows an asterisk
* next to the currently active version.
Local application-specific Python version
local command will set local application-specific Python version(s) by writing the version name to a
.python-version file in the current directory. This version overrides the global version. For example, to install anaconda3-4.1.1 in
$ pyenv install anaconda3-4.1.1 $ cd path/to/directory $ pyenv local anaconda3-4.1.1 $ pyenv rehash $ pyenv versions system 2.7.12 3.5.2 * anaconda3-4.1.1 (set by /Users/your_account/path/to/directory/.python-version)